Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus in the genus Penicillium. Widespread in nature, it can be isolated from soil, decaying organic matter, and. Penicillium marneffei is a unicellular organism with round to oval celled fungus, 4 to 8 micrometers in diameter [1, 4]. These cells can actually. Penicillium Link, Magazin der Gesellschaft Naturforschenden Freunde Berlin 3 (1 ): 16 () [MB#].
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Some members of the genus produce klasigikasia molecule that is used as an antibioticwhich kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria.
Other species are used in cheesemaking. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi 10th edition,the widespread genus contains over species. The genus was first described in the scientific literature by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in his work Observationes in ordines plantarum naturaleswriting “Penicillium.
Thallus e floccis caespitosis septatis simplicibus aut penicil,ium fertilibus erectis apice penicillatis”, where penicillatis referred to “pencil-like” referring to a Camel’s hair pencil brush. The common apple rot fungus P. In a monographJohn I. Pitt divided Penicillium into four subgenera based on conidiophore morphology and branching pattern: AspergilloidesBiverticilliumFurcatumand Penicillium. The genus name is derived from the Latin root penicillummeaning “painter’s brush”, and refers to the chains of conidia that resemble a broom.
The thallus mycelium consists of highly branched networks of multinucleated cells located on a septum lacking hyphae that is often colorless.
Conidiophores are at the end of each branch accompanied by green spherical constricted units called conidiospores.
Penicillium camemberti – Wikipedia
These individual units play a significant role in reproduction; conidiospores are the main dispersal route of the fungi. Sexual reproduction involves the production of ascosporescommencing with the fusion of an archegonium and an antheridiumwith sharing of nuclei. The irregularly distributed asci contain eight unicellular ascospores each. Species of Penicillium are ubiquitous soil fungi preferring cool and moderate climates, commonly present wherever organic material is available.
Saprophytic klasifkasi of Penicillium and Aspergillus are among the best-known representatives of the Eurotiales and live mainly on organic biodegradable substances.
Commonly known in America as moldsthey are among the main causes of food spoilageespecially species of subgenus Penicillium. The ability of these Penicillium species to grow on seeds and other stored foods depends on their propensity to thrive in low humidity and to colonize rapidly by aerial dispersion while the seeds are sufficiently moist. Some Penicillium species affect the fruits and bulbs of plants, including P.
Penicillium species are present in the air and dust of indoor environments, such as homes and public buildings. The fungus can be readily transported from the outdoors, and grow indoors using building material or accumulated soil to obtain nutrients for growth.
Penicillium growth can still occur indoors even if the klasiifikasi humidity is low, as long as there is sufficient moisture available on a given surface. A British study determined that Aspergillus – and Penicillium -type spores were the most prevalent in penicillum indoor air of residential properties, and exceeded outdoor levels.
Some Penicillium species cause damage to machinery and the combustible materials and lubricants used to run and maintain them. Several species of the genus Penicillium play a central role in the production of cheese and of various meat products.
To be specific, Penicillium molds are found in Blue cheese. Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti are llasifikasi molds on CamembertBrieRoquefortand many other cheeses. In addition to their importance in the food industry, species klasiflkasi Penicillium and Aspergillus serve in the production of a number of biotechnologically produced enzymes and other macromolecules, such as gluconiccitricand tartaric acidsas well as several pectinaseslipaseamylasescellulasesand proteases.
Some Penicillium species have shown potential for use in bioremediationmore specifically mycoremediationbecause of their ability to break down a variety of xenobiotic compounds. The genus includes a wide variety of species molds that are the source molds of major antibiotics. Penicillina drug produced by P. Its potential as an antibiotic was realized in the penicillihm s, and Howard Florey and Ernst Chain purified and concentrated the compound.
Griseofulvin is an antifungal drug and a potential chemotherapeutic agent  that was discovered in P. However recent studies have revealed that sex occurs even in some of klasifikadi supposedly asexual species.
For example, sexual capability was recently shown for the fungus Penicillium roquefortiused as a starter for blue cheese production.
Penlcillium chrysogenum is of major medical and historical importance as the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin.
Penicillium chrysogenum – Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
The species was considered asexual for more than years despite concerted efforts to induce sexual reproduction. However, inBohm et al. Penicillium marneffeian Klasifikaasi -associated pathogenwas also previously assumed to reproduce exclusively by asexual means. This assumption was largely based on the highly clonal population structure of this species.
However, recent ppenicillium has revealed that the genes required for meiosis are present in P. It was concluded that P.
These findings with Penicillium species are consistent with klasifiikasi evidence from studies of other eukaryotic species that sex was likely present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 13 November This article may be too technical for most readers to understand.
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List of Penicillium species. Dictionary of the Fungi 10th ed.
Houbraken1, J. Frisvad2, S. Samson, 22 Septemberhttps: Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Penifillium. The genus Penicillium and its teleomorphic states Eupenicillium and Talaromyces.
A Glossary of Word Origins 2nd ed. American College of Physicians. Taints and Off-flavours in Food. Journal of Basic Microbiology. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Journal of peniciplium Science of Food and Agriculture. The Art of Making Fermented Sausages. International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
World Journal of Microbiology. Evolutionary Origin and Adaptive Function of Meiosis. Bernstein C and Lenicillium H, editors. Retrieved from ” https: CS1 Latin-language sources la Wikipedia pending changes protected pages Wikipedia articles that are too technical from August All articles that are too technical Articles needing expert attention from Penicilium All articles needing expert attention Articles with ‘species’ microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Commons category link from Wikidata.