File:El embrujado From Wikimedia English: Representación de la obra de teatro El embrujado, de Ramón María del Valle-Inclán. Valle-Inclán and the theatre: innovation in La cabeza del dragón, El embrujado, and La marquesa Rosalinda. Front Cover. Xavier Peter Vila. Bucknell University . : Valle-Inclan and the Theatre: Innovation in LA Cabeza Del Dragon, El Embrujado, and LA Marquesa Rosalinda () by Xavier .
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The Galician people believe in portents and omens, in witches and demonic possession as much as they believed in God. Roviro writes that both religion and superstition have their place embryjado the lives of the Galician people. He states that religion is a very real part of the everyday life of this agrarian population.
Their faith gives them the resigned attitude needed to go about their daily avlle. It gives them a melancholy happiness, a dreamlike placidness Como toda tierra muy religiosa, Galicia vive de demonio. She believes that her daughter is possessed by an evil spirit.
El embrujado : tragedia de tierras de Salnes, original
When the Countess becomes aware of the crime she does not report it to the authorities or even the Church. She turns to the local witch to mete out her revenge. The grandsons of Noah brought the message of God, the Gauls, Celts, Phoenicians, the Romans and the Goths brought in their own mythologies, all of which were mixed together to create whatever superstitious beliefs in which the Galician people were inclined to practice and believe.
The devil became a studied figure. He was painted, described and studied. His customs, habits, tastes and his likes were well known. It was known how he came to possess the bodies of the sick, it was known how to exorcise him from the possessed, there were well known methods for recognizing witches and efficacious methods in making them talk. Witchcraft and religion often found themselves to be rivals. Many people would go to the saludadores to have someone they knew cured if they were sick or exorcised if they were suffering from mal de ojo.
The three youths have been bitten by a rabid wolf. Interestingly, their first choice is to consult the saludador de Cela. He could do nothing for them. They believe there is no hope for them, so they wait for their death. However when one of the old women of the village passes by to enquire about their health, she tells the boys to have a mass said to San Electus, giving them hope that there might still be a chance to overcome their deadly predicament.
Sadly, the boys die the same day that the mass was said. T oo little, too late. She is an old woman of great repute. He is the servant of God, but he has used or cast a mal de ojo over Beatriz in order to seduce and rape her. In this instance, even a man of God uses superstition to aid him in his evil doings. He realizes that either the Penitenciario or the saludadora will unmask him as the perpetrator of the crime, consequently he decides that flight is his only recourse.
She orders the saludadora to conjure up incan spell against the priest so that he may die. She had had a dream that the Countess was calling her, and so she came to her immediately.
The saludadora looks at Beatriz for a while and then pronounces her diagnosis: Here wl use of prayer and of witchcraft are combined to cure the mal de ojo curse. This saludadora also has the power to evoke evil. When the Countess valke her if she can work evil spells, the vallf woman ebrujado, saying that it is a sin. The Countess, to assuage the old woman’s fear, tells her that she will have masses said on the saludadora ‘s behalf.
She then rips out seven pages and places them on the Countess’ mirror. The next morning his dead body is found floating in the river.
Superstition in Valle-Inclán’s Jardín umbrío, El Pasajero nº 22, estío
Here we see the use of religious objects to conjure up evil spells. She is cognizant of all the spells to use, good and evil, but uses them within the guidelines of the Catholic religion. She is described as being devout, but also has powerful, mysterious powers.
The narrator was extremely frightened of the old lady. She tells the boy’s mother that her husband has a demon on his side.
In order to ascertain what has happened to the boy’s father she uses her mysterious powers: At the moment that the old woman tells them that the blood that the father had spilt was now falling on an innocent head, they all hear a door open. The narrator starts to tremble. He points to the mirror where he sees a shrouded figure with a knife at his throat. His mother sees nothing. Ahora mismo estoy oyendo las silenciosas pisadas del Alcaide Carcelero!
She is called Madre Silva. When the captain and his followers return to their cave, the old woman is there waiting for them. Within the booty presented to her there is a bejewelled hand. The captain feels remorse at having cut off the hand from the young woman and becomes entranced with its owner. From reading the palm Madre Silva recites the owner’s story. The young girl is a lamiaa folkloric character well known to the Galician people, according to Rita Posse From birth she had been kept hidden through sorcery.
A dwarf kept her prisoner. She could only wait until the dwarf slept and then from her window she would call out to those outside. Human eyes had never seen her since the dwarf would make her appear as a dove or flower. The captain was able to see her for what she was because she had put on those rings.
Madre Silva tells him that if he had not cut her hand off he could have married her.
She was the daughter of a king. The enchantment from the hand spills over onto the captain. He cannot forget the woman and when a dog comes in and runs off with the hand, he goes off after it in a maddened rage even though Madre Silva cautions him that valpe will wander the woods until he is an old man.
Valle-Inclan and the Theatre : Xavier Vila :
Through these short stories we can see the importance of the role of saludadora within Galician society. As we have already discussed, Beatriz is the victim of a mal de ojo. Usually the vaalle is a marginal member of society, that is, they live on ekbrujado fringes of society, limiting their contact with it.
The fascinador can be a hermit, witch, vagabound, thief etc. His yells are likened to animal noises. In order to rid the person of this suffering, the tormented soul had to be exorcised. Just feeling his gaze upon her makes the woman feel touched by a miracle. Jesus does not cure her then and there, but rather sends her home to wait for him. Then he turns into a black cat embgujado leaving Antonia’s mother.
The mother feels herself persecuted by malevolent spirits. At one point, while everyone is in the salon, the mother feels that a cat is scratching beneath the sofa, but no one else sees or hears it.
The mother notices that Antonia is daydreaming. The mother believes it is a manifestation of Bretal. She believes that since Antonia must be thinking of him, that his malevolent thoughts have transferred themselves in the scratching cat. While Basilisa runs around the room with an olive branch sprinking holy water, Antonia’s mother grabs Antonia by the hair to make her stop thinking of Bretal, thus ridding themselves of the tormenting cat.
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The mother complains a few times about a black cat near her but it is only after the death of his mother that the boy realizes that Bretal had been the cat that had plagued his mother.
One night Basilisa comes for him. She has a pair of scissors in one hand and a cross in the other. She gives the cross to the boy embryjado says that they must do as his mother asks and get rid niclan the cat.
When the cat comes out from under the mother’s bed, Basilisa cuts its ears off. His face is bandaged up and the boy believes he sees that his ears have been clipped, all the proof he needs that the cat and Bretal are one and the same. The boy totally embrujadi that Bretal is the devil and has done his iinclan to bewitch Antonia.
Such was his power that he killed their mother because icnlan stood in the way of his desire for Antonia. Power that had been given to him by the devil.
Father Bernardo had warned Antonia’s mother that such was Bretal’s desperation for Antonia’s love that he was contemplating a pact with the devil. Sacrilegious because Bretal is indlan member of the Church. Vqlle calling upon the devil for aid in the acquisition of Antonia’s love is in direct opposition to the Catholic religion, consequently, he looks to superstitious methods to acheive his end. One is able to discern then that within Bretal there is a religious-satanic relationship warring, but it seems that the devil is winning in this instance.
Antonia’s mother, who is a devout ell, has a hand that lacks some fingers, thus to hide this imperfection she wears a black glove. Campanella writes that the significance of the black hand, like the black cat, is the expression of witchcraft in the ambiance of Galican village life.
The black glove, then, is the folkloric theme which Valle uses as an expression of the demonic aspect in every human being that is found next to the angelic spirit. Valle always uses the one hand to contrast the other: Mi madre era muy bella, blanca y rubia, siempre vestida, con guante negro en una mano, por la falta de dos dedos, y la otra, que era como una camelia, toda cubierta de sortijas.
Emotionally, Antonia’s mother is a portrait of contrasts. She is a devout and caring woman, however, she cannot abide Bretal. Her dislike for the boy seems unreasonable. She would rather see Antonia dead than be with him.