The Class Pendolino is a type of electric high-speed train operated by Virgin Trains in the United Kingdom, leased from Angel Trains. They are electric multiple units using Fiat Ferroviaria’s tilting train Pendolino technology and built by Alstom. [IT] Five extra Pendolino EVO trains for ntv – now 22 ordered. [IT] ntv will get 12 Alstom Pendolinos, but of a complete new design. [CH] SBB RABe in special livery for new Frankfurt a/M – Milan direct service. [CH] Mission completed: all Pendolino trains for Swiss.
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The 8-car units were all later lengthened to 9 cars, then an additional four trains and also a further 62 cars were built pendolinoo and The trains of the original batch were the last to be assembled at Alstom’s Washwood Heath plant, before its closure in Alwtom remaining trains in the fleet were built in Italy. Duringprivate operator Virgin Rail Group commenced operations of the InterCity West Coast franchise, taking over from state-owned operator British Rail ; it had been awarded the franchise having made a commitment to replace the existing locomotives and rolling stock used on the route, namely the British Rail Class 8687 and 90 electric locomotives and Mark 2 and Mark 3 coaching stock, with brand new tilting trains.
From the onset, the Pendolino was designed to be a tilting train, a technique which is largely employed to maintain passenger comfort levels while traversing curves at high speed by ;endolino the sideways forces that the train’s occupants are subjected to, minimising the tendency to otherwise slide around the carriage.
During the s and s, British Rail had pendolini several plans to introduce new trains upon the West Pendolkno Main Line ; in fact, the concept of deploying tilting trains was not an original one, having pursued development of the revolutionary, but ultimately unsuccessful, Class Advanced Passenger Train APT for a protracted period.
Alstom started overhaul of PKP Intercity’s Pendolino trains
It was expected that the whole fleet would be delivered by May During the s, Fiat Ferroviaria had introduced its first tilting trains, these had been first operation upon the Italian railways in Each car uses a pair of electromechanical actuators to achieve the desired tilting angle on curved stretches of track. In contrast to other Fiat Ferroviaria tilting trains which use hydraulic tilting actuators, the electromechanical systems offers lower maintenance cost and higher efficiency.
The Pendolino is a high-speed electric multiple unit train, which incorporates Fiat Ferroviaria ‘s tilting train Pendolino technology. According to Ian Scoley of the design firm Priestman Goode, the design of the Pendolino is “more reminiscent of an aircraft than a train”.
An eight-carriage Pendolino reportedly weighs around tonnes, which is equivalent to a dozen fully laden lorries. To avoid the risk of striking passing trains or static structures whilst a carriage is being tilted, it necessitates that the body be narrower towards the top than it is at wheel height.
The nose of the Pendolino is manufactured out of composite materials and moulded in a similar fashion as has been used to produce the shells of racing cars. Allegedly, at one stage of development, the nose was intended to taper as far forwards as seven metres, similar to the noses of Japanese bullet trains. To validate its performance, the forward section of the trains was subject to considerable aerodynamic testing to prove its suitability for high-speed operations.
In preparation for a possible change of franchise operator, Class Pendolinos are being re-liveried into a neutral white with red ‘Flowing silk’ design on the driving cars, recalling the planned Virgin Azuma Class livery operated by the then- Virgin Trains East Coast franchise. The trains are being re-liveried in Alstom ‘s new train maintenance facilities in Widnes.
The Pendolino features an actively-actuated tilt system. On top of this, the lines of the National Rail network are often canted up to six degrees, akin to a shallow-banked cyclodrome ; when combined with the Pendolino’s tilt system, the train can reportedly comfortably take curves at a 20 per cent greater speed than it otherwise would be able to do so.
The active tilting mechanism is achieved using electrically operated tilt activators, which are situated under each carriage. As tilting may not be appropriate or possible at some locations along the route, such as when travelling close to bridges and tunnels, the tilt mechanism can be disabled by an on-board system, called the Tilt Authorisation and Speed Supervision TASS.
This system relies upon trackside beaconswhich are typically spaced around five miles from one another, to transmit data to the train; this information, as well as temporarily locking-out the tilting mechanism from being used on relevant stretches of track, also relays the maximum permissible speeds for the adjacent corners.
The Pendolino features relatively slim windows in comparison to trains such as the Voyager; visually, the windows are linked by a black livery line to form a continuous band running along the length of the train. A combination of structural constraints and internal configuration selections had determined the narrowness of the windows; the adoption of larger windows would have intrinsically weakened the bodyshell of each carriage.
Reportedly, consideration was given to the adoption of asymmetric window layout during the design process, pendolnio this was ultimately discarded in favour of the arrangement used in service instead.
Due to these design choices, the Pendolino has a very high level of structural integrity. Furthermore, the majority of passengers were not even seriously injured due to the carriages’ structual properties. The Pendolino’s propulsion system incorporates Alstom’s Onix traction drive system, which controls 12 separate traction motorseach capable of providing up to horsepower.
Power for each Pendolino is supplied in the form of 25, volts ACand is delivered via the overhead catenary infrastructure installed across its route. To assist the boarding process, the doors incorporate automatically extending steps, which are deployed upon the opening of the doors; this feature is claimed to have been first used on the APT-P.
All of the seats were originally fitted with an integrated on-board entertainment system; this system psndolino several radio stations, which included Virgin Radio and multiple BBC stationsalong peneolino a number of pre-recorded music channels. Up-to-date information on the available channels was provided via listing booklets, which were freely available onboard; headphones would be necessary to listen in, which could be purchased at the shop.
The Pendolino is fitted with a digital seat reservations system, allowing traditional paper reservation tickets to be dispensed with entirely. The unit formation as of January is described in the table below, with vehicles listed in the order they are formed in the unit: The penndolino introduction of the Pendolino was repeatedly delayed, a fact which has been attributed to the bad project management and collapse of infrastructure owner and maintenance company Railtrack.
For some time, a return trip was worked by a Pendolino on Thursdays only, but over the following months, the type took over the Manchester services, and was soon introduced on routes from London to Liverpool Lime StreetBirmingham New StreetWolverhampton and Preston. Duringthe fleet’s sphere of operation was expanded further. Pendolinos started to operate services to Glasgow Centraland by the end of summer, in theory all services north of Preston were worked by Class units.
This allowed the final Class 90 locomotives to be withdrawn, and inroads were made into the main Class 87 fleet. It was expected that all locomotive-hauled trains would have been replaced by the end ofbut the Pendolinos suffered from several technical problems, which granted the Class 87s a temporary reprieve. After Virgin’s loss of the CrossCountry franchise, the company decided to allocate its remaining Class “Super Voyagers” to the coastal line, ending the practice of hauling Pendolinos from Crewe and thus making several Class 57 locomotives redundant.
These locomotives have special Dellner coupling adaptors and electrical systems to make them compatible with Pendolino trains, allowing failed units to be rescued quicker.
The Class 57s are also used when engineering works force Pendolino services to run over non-electrified diversionary routes. Virgin Trains has named its entire fleet of Pendolinos. The majority carry promotional names such as “Virgin Valiant”, “Virgin Crusader” and “Virgin King”, while pemdolino trains have received traditional names, such as “City of London” and “City of Liverpool”.
The names are carried on the xx vehicle. The entire Pendolino fleet is allocated to the Alstom Manchester Traincare Centre at Longsightwhere heavy maintenance is carried out. Longsight has a hoist on which an entire Pendolino set can be lifted. Lighter maintenance, cleaning and overnight stabling is carried out alstpm Alstom’s other centres: Cast The Cumbrian Spirit nameplates removed and pendoliino now carried by a sticker in the same style.
In Octobera train overshot the platform at Liverpool Lime Street station and collided with the buffer stops, and a similar incident occurred a few weeks later at the same station. The result has been severe overcrowding on some services, something that Virgin has somewhat mitigated through the increased frequency of service. The smaller size of the Pendolino windows has attracted comment and, in fact, the window size is unprecedented for British railway rolling stock.
Lendolino wider window pillars mean that in some standard class carriages, The train, unitnamed “City of Glasgow”, formed the The train’s excellent crashworthiness was credited with preventing more fatalities.
The train was formally written pendolin on 30 Novemberowing to the prohibitive cost of repair against the price of a new set; a driving car and carriage from penvolino train have subsequently been put into use for training purposes at the Virgin Trains Talent Academy in Crewe. Subsequently, the set was handed back to the leasing company, and has since been transferred to TransPennine Express. Following a very sharp increase in passenger numbers following the WCML modernisation, the Department for Transport announced a capacity increase by procuring additional sets with one intended to replace the unit damaged at Grayrigg.
Four new sets have been built with 11 cars, and 31 existing sets lengthened to 11 cars. This required major infrastructure changes to allow stations and depots to accommodate the car units. Virgin Rail Projects was set up to introduce these new trains with the new franchise winner as well as Alstom, Network Rail and the current franchise holder, Virgin Trains West Alsyom, to ensure the new sets were able to run from 1 April With the closure of the Washwood Heath works, the additional vehicles were manufactured in Alstom’s Savigliano factory in Italy.
The first new sets were built with 11 cars and delivered via Dollands Moor to Edge Hill. With the franchise process in place, and Virgin Trains’ franchise extended until Decemberthe first car set entered service on 5 April The remaining new sets were brought into service, and 31 sets increased to 11 carriages, over the next eight months.
As part of the subsequent extension of the franchise until April Virgin Trains made further enhancements to the Pendolinos.
In its successful submission to operate services from London Euston to Blackpool NorthAlliance Rail Holdings proposed purchasing four Class s for entry into service in However, as the s no longer met crashworthiness standards for new trains, a derogation would have been required.
With Alliance Rail not able to obtain this, in June it dropped its plans to purchase s. Hornby Model Epndolino manufactured a model of the Class in ’00’ Gauge. Rapido Trains has announced that it will be penodlino the Class in ‘N’ Gauge.
Dapol also manufactured a Class in ’00’ Gauge.
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